Research Article | Open Access

Impact of Polychronicity on Work-Related Quality of Life Among Bank Employees: Moderating Role of Time Management

    Javeria Sehrish

    National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Aisha Zubair

    National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

27 Mar, 2019
15 Jun, 2020
30 Jun, 2020

The present study intended to investigate the effect of polychronicity and time management on work-related quality of life among bank employees. It also attempted to examine the moderating role of time management in predicting work-related quality of life from polychronic tendencies. Gender differences were also investigated along the study variables. Purposive sample consisted of 300 bank employees including men and women with age range of 27 to 52 years (M= 32.5, SD = 4.26) was acquired. Measures of Polychronic Attitude Index (Kaufman, Lane, & Lindquist, 1991), Time Management Behavior Scale (Poposki, Oswald, & Chen, 2008), and Work-related Quality of Life Scale (Zeng et al., 2011) were used to assess study variables. Results showed that polychronicity was negatively associated with time management and work-related quality of life, while time management and work-related quality of life were positively aligned with each other. Findings also revealed that time management buffers the relationship between polychronicity and work-related quality of life and offered a cushioning effect against the repercussions of ploychronicity. Gender differences indicated that men reflected less polychronic tendencies, better time management, and elevated work-related quality of life as compared to their female counterparts. Findings of the present study would bear practical implications for job design and managing various tasks at workplace.

Banking sector is considered as active and dynamic organizational set up where employees are required to be involved in multitasking activities. At the same time, multitasking and capabilities of time management may also affect work-related quality of life. Present study focused on the moderating role of time management in the relationship between polychronicity and work related quality of life on the basis of significant association among all these variables based on numerous earlier empirical evidences (Aeon, Brad, & Herman, 2017; Capdeferro, Romero, & Barbera, 2014; Lee & Jack, 2017). It may also be central to explore from the organizational context that how polychronicity would influence time management abilities and work-related quality of life in bank employees because they are at a time dealing with clients and performing their other tasks simultaneously.

According to Mattarelli and Bertolotti (2015), the human brain has the capability of working on several activities at a given time and this capacity can vary from person to person. Some people feel comfortable in doing multiple things at a time, while others may prefer to do a single task in a given time. Preference of doing multiple tasks simultaneously is known as polychronicity and it has a far-reaching impact on the work-related quality of life in terms of both intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic management of tasks (Waipeng, Trevor, & Shahiraa, 2005). However, tendency of being polychronic is likely to be greatly influences by one’s ability to manage time schedules and energy resources in the fulfillment of tasks which ultimately shapes our quality of life in the work domain.

In recent years (Pachler et al., 2018; Szameitat & Hayati, 2019), polychronicity has been investigated as an attribute in both work and non-work domains which bears positive as well as negative consequences on our daily life. It is, therefore, crucial to examine this phenomenon in relation to those aspects of work life which play significant role in generating better work-related quality of life. Time management is an art and emerged as a fundamental aspect of organizational settings and is reciprocally linked with professional and personal growth (Kaya, Kaya, Pallos, & Kucuk, 2012). Conversely, it has been observed that people performing multiple tasks simultaneously find it difficult to manage their time effectively; thereby, inevitably influencing the intrinsic satisfaction and quality of work life of the employees. Therefore, the present study is designed to determine two-pronged exploration: firstly, to examine the direct effect of polychronicity and time management on work-related quality of life of employees; and secondly, to investigate the buffering effect of time management in the relationship between polychronicity and work-related quality of life.

Polychronicity is defined as the degree to which people prefer to do two or more tasks concurrently (Waipeng et al., 2005), and it is the degree to which people choose to be engaged in two or more tasks at a time and they actually do it (Capdeferro et al., 2014). Similarly, Poposki et al. (2008) asserted that polychronicity is a non-cognitive variable in which the focus is on the individual’s inclination for changing attention among current tasks instead of paying attention on the completion of one task before moving towards the other task. Arndit, Arnold, and Landry (2006) categorized polychronicity into two distinct types including multi-tasking, characterized as doing numerous activities at a time; and task-switching, tendency to move back and forth between various tasks in a specific time period; although, this distinction becomes behaviorally inconspicuous as polychronic people tend to be involve in both multi-tasking and task-switching.

In contemporary era, time management become more significant in the competitive market and it has surfaced as a crucial component of organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Time management is metaphorically considered equivalent to energy management as time itself is a factor which is directly unapproachable rather is a mode of monitoring, controlling, and executing energies in a given time frame (Farrell, 2017). Effective management of time is the ability of an individual to prioritize, schedule, and execute personal responsibilities in order to attain personal satisfaction (Aeon et al., 2017). It is a self-controlled attempt to use time in a subjectively efficient way to achieve outcomes (Andıç, 2009). Usunier and Valletta-Florence, (2007) further added that people have preferences for time management based on motivational aspects of time, for instance, a person who is high on tenacity would be willing to take on projects even when the rewards are long term. Similarly, people who can easily distribute their time among different activities and fields of interests are likely to utilize their time effectively (Koning, Buhner, & Murling, 2005). In organizational context, Lee and Jack (2017) identified two important steps which are involved in planning and organizing behaviors; that is, goal specification (distributing the larger goal into attainable sub-goals) and path specification (designing the actual procedures to attain the sub-goals). Path specification is further characterized by the equipment required, personnel resources involved, and time framing for each procedure.

Currently, stress related with work and relationship between work andnon-work life domains are the essential components of quality of work life (Zubair, Williams, & Kevin, 2017). Work-related quality of life consists of hierarchy of viewpoints in which not only work-based factors like job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay, and interaction with work colleagues are included but there are some other aspects that generally reveal life satisfaction and general feelings of well-being (Phan, Giang, & Trung, 2016). Numerous organizational researchers (Eldeleklioglu, 2008; Mensah, & Kwesi, 2014; Nasrullah & Saqib, 2015; Waterworth, 2003) consented that quality of life (in general) and quality of work life (in particular) influence the quality of work performance. Zeng et al. (2011) further deliberated that feelings of an employee towards their work-related situations and experiences can be explained by the notion of quality of work life.

Numerous studies have investigated the various aspects of the major constructs of the present study which provide the empirical basis for the assumed relationships among the study variables. The impact of polychronicity on various work-related behaviors provides an insight about the possible repercussions of multitasking. For instance, polychronicity is related with heightened levels of stress, anxiety, turnover intentions (Köning et al., 2005), poor internal locus of control (Lee & Jack, 2017), and truncated decision-making skills (Kirchberg, Roe, & Eerde, 2015). Moreover, managers who had preference for multitasking in their work roles display lack of intrinsic motivation, higher job-related stress, and poor quality of work life (Jang & George, 2012). Mattarelli and Bertolotti (2015) observed that employees rendering services at various levels of management are prone to multitasking expressed augmented levels of strain, apprehension, and dissatisfaction with the quality of their professional output. Latest evidences (Bertolotti, Mattarelli, & Dukerich, 2018) indicate that burn out associated with polychronic work style bears an adverse effect on the employees’ general quality of life spanning over the domestic and job spheres.

Few empirical evidences explored the impact of polychronicity on time management highlighted the role of multitasking versus monotasking in relation to the effective utilization of time. For instance, Adams and Eerde (2010) explored the buffering role of setting time frame in the relationship between polychromic / monochromic tendencies and completion of task. It has been found that floor supervisors with monochromic tendencies with realistic time scheduling have been more successful in subsequent completion of the task while, polychrons with poor time management skills are more prone to managerial and administrative errors in the execution of tasks. Claessens, Van Eerde, Rutte, and Roe (2007) pointed out that polychronicity is interconnected with many explicit characteristics of time management such as person's polychronic or monochronic work style greatly determine the personal approach to time management at the work where polychrons tend to distribute their time in terms of week and months rather in terms of days or hours. Carol and Lindquist (2014) further asserted that polychrons are generally determined to initiate multiple tasks with varying time schedules but unable to bridge the pragmatic connectivity in achieving those time targets required for the completion of each task.

Various studies showed effective and parsimonious time management as a precursor of desirable work related outcomes such as decreased stress at work place (Farrell, 2017), enhanced job satisfaction, affective commitment (Claessens et al., 2007), and maintaining balance in work-family obligations (Eldeleklioglu, 2008). Time management is also found to be positively associated with elevated internal locus of control, task planning, and quality of work (Kaya et al., 2012). Wang, Kao, Huan, and Chung-Chi (2011) gave conclusive explanation about the imperative role of time management in enhancing better quality of work life by asserting that most people work for extended period of time or even during odd hours (depending on the nature of job); therefore, efficient time management permits them to distribute time in work and non-work domains and enabling them to spare quality time with family and friends which in itself is a great source of internal satisfaction and enhancing quality of life both at work and domestic realms.

Köning et al. (2005) declared that negative association of multitasking with job satisfaction and job performance is buffered by the availability of temporal (time-related) and instrumental support provided by the middle managers to the employees working in alternate shifts. In addition, Wang et al. (2011) observed that operative time management offer positive cushion against the work-related hazards such as unanticipated operational perils faced by teams working in highly demanding scenarios. On similar note, Aeon et al. (2017) reported that time urgent individuals are more attentive to time and deadlines, and they are likely to act as a initiator for the group and are sensitive to time delays and completion of task in time; therefore, their time urgency acts as a moderator and safeguarded them between the execution of multiple tasking and work performance.

Several explorations have been undergone to investigate gender differences across polychronicty, time management, and work-related quality of life. However, literature offers contradictory findings in relation to gender along polychronicity; for instance, Adams and Eerde (2010) reported that age and gender are not significantly related with polychronicity among Spanish bank employees. Similarly, Waipeng et al. (2005) also demonstrated that polychronic work style is not significantly related with certain demographics such as gender, education, and job experience rather it is more pertinent with personality dispositions of the employees. Conversely, Adams and Eerde (2012) asserted that women are less prone to opt polychronic work style as compared to men; while completion of task in time is more prevalent among female employees. Additional studies (Bertolotti et al., 2018; Capdeferro et al., 2014; Daskin & Surucu, 2016) further inferred that gender differences in multitasking are contingent on contextual situations, that is women are more inclined for handling multiple roles and tasks in domestic settings; while male employees are relatively better in rendering their compound roles and responsibilities at workplace.

Kaya et al. (2012) found significant gender differences in temporal planning and scheduling short and long term goals indicating that men prefer to incorporate availability of logistic and monetary support in planning the tasks, hence, are able to accomplish time intervals required for the implementation of plan. Andıç’s (2009) also noted that female and male employees have their own preferences in designing the attainment of organizational goals; where women has the enhanced ability in outlining principal goals customized in accordance to the organizational needs; however, male employees inclined to develop sub-goals in terms of accessibility of time, resources, and manpower for the accomplishment of each task. Later, Aeon et al. (2017) observed that time management is conditionally related with the strategies that employees use to cope with job stress declaring that men are liable to opt problem focused coping styles and give more focus to practical constraints in the task completion; hence, have more effective time distribution for each task as compared to their female counterparts.

In regard to gender differences on work related quality of life, ample evidences (Kirchberg, Roe, Erde, 2015; Mattarelli & Bertolotti, 2015; Zubair et al., 2017) consented that female workers are constantly increasing workforce (including regular & part-time jobs) in almost all the continents; however, this additional commitment has a far reaching impact on their mental, emotional, and physical health. Later investigations focusing on work-family interface highlighted major problems specifically faced by young and adult women workers in the domains of marital adjustment, glass ceiling (Dobie et al., 2004), job related burnout (Shea, Vujanovic, Mansfield, Sevin, & Liu, 2010), turnover, and subsequent quality of life (Zubair et al., 2017). Work-related quality of life has been specifically examined among female veterans rendering their services in combat regions inferred higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder; thereby affecting work-related quality of life (Mensah & Kwesi, 2014). Recently, Phan et al. (2016) pointed out the existence of elevated levels of psychological distress, absenteeism, and poor work-related quality of life among female nurses. However, Fontana, Rosenheck, and Desai (2010) reported nonsignificant gender differences in relation to supervisory support, job related efficacy, and quality of life at work among employees working in manufacturing industry.

Review of the relevant literature highlighted the identification of certain gaps in the existing evidences which assisted in designing the present study. Firstly, past researches mostly focused upon the effect of monochronic and polychronic tendencies on the manifestation of work related outcomes such as performance, turnover, and organizational behavior; however, there is scarcity of empirical exploration regarding the influence of polychronicity on the cognitive and emotional side of the work life reflected in work-related quality of life. Secondly, literature is relatively silent about the role of protective factors (such as time management skills) which would shield against the negative influence of polychronicity on work outcomes. Thirdly, prior evidences expressed contradictory findings regarding gender in relation to polychronicity and work-related quality of life; hence, laying the foundation for further exploration of gender differences in the context of multi-tasking. Finally, banking sector is one of the most emerging organizational structure in Pakistan which plays a pivotal role in generating revenue and monetary support essentially required for the self-sustenance of the micro and macro societal systems. In this view, employees working in banks are specifically trained for the attainment of goals in specific time intervals. To the best of our knowledge, there is dearth of specific literature that would explain the relationship among these constructs in Pakistan. Therefore, the current endeavor would help in developing understanding of the study variables in the backdrop of Pakistani perspective. The present study is designed with three major objectives: firstly, to determine the relationship between polychronicity, time management, and work-related quality of life. Secondly, to investigate the buffering effect of time management in predicting work-related quality of life from polichronicity; and thirdly, to explore the role of gender in relation to polychronicity, time management, and work-related quality of life among bank employees.

In the line of the above reasoning and empirical evidences, the following hypotheses were phrased:

  1. Polychronicity is negatively associated with work-related quality of life and time management.
  2. Time management is positively associated with work-related quality of life.
  3. Time management moderates the relationship between polychronicity and work-related quality of life.
  4. Men are likely to exhibit less polychronicity, better time management, and work-related quality of life as compared to women.


The purposive sample (N = 300) constituted of the bank employees of different branches of public (n = 173) and private sector (n = 127). Respondents included both men (n = 185) and women (n = 115) with age ranging from 27 to 52 years (M = 32.5, SD = 4.26). Minimum job tenure in the present organization varied from 1- 5 years (M = 3.12, SD = 1.23), while overall job experience varied from 2-16 years (M = 8.57, SD = 2.08). Job designations of the employees included manager operations (n = 54), manager teller (n = 83), and customer relations officers (n = 163). Education level of the participants ranged from the graduation (n = 88) up to masters (n = 212). Inclusion criteria was to include only those participants with minimum of one year of job period in the current organization, whereas overall job experience was at least 2 years. This criterion was followed in lieu to the recommendations of Poposki et al. (2008) asserting that skills related to managing time corresponding to various job-related tasks and obligations may develop in the due process of temporal stay at a particular workplace.

The following measures were used to assess the constructs of the study.

Polychronic Attitude Index (Kaufman et al., 1991). This scale assesses polychromic inclinations and consisted of four items to be rated on 5-point scale anchored at each point with modified response categories ranging from (1) Strongly Agree to (5) Strongly Disagree. Possible score range of the scale varied from 4 to 20 with high scores on this scale exhibiting more polychronicity, while low scores reflect monochromic tendencies. Reliability of the scale was reported by authors as .79 (Kaufman et al., 1991); while, Cronbach’s alpha of .72 was achieved for the current sample.

Time Management Behavior Scale (Poposki et al., 2008). This scale was used to appraise subjects' use of time management behaviors. It consisted of 34 time management behavior items and categorized into four dimensions that is, Goal Setting and Priorities (10 items), Mechanics (11 items), Preference for Organization (8 items), and Perceived Control Over Time (4 items). Participants responded to each item using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from (1) never true to (5) always true, with total score ranging from 34 to 170, and individuals who scored high on this scale exhibited better time management. Reported alpha reliabilities from previous studies for the time management dimensions fluctuated from .78 to .83 (Poposki et al., 2008). In the present study, alpha coefficient for the total scale was found to be .80; thereby indicating the scale as dependable measure of the said construct.

Work Related Quality of Life Scale (WRQoL; Zeng et al., 2011). This scale comprised of 24 items and categorized into six factors, that is, Job and Career Satisfaction (6 items), General Well-Being (7 items), Stress at Work (2 items), Control at Work (3 items), Home-Work Interface (3 items), and Working Conditions (3 items). It was a 5-point scale with response options ranging from (1) Strongly Disagree to (5) Strongly Agree. Possible scores range varied from 24 to 120 and high scores on the scale showed better work-related quality of life. Cronbach’s alpha for the total WRQoL was reported as .92 (Zeng et al., 2011), while alpha coefficient of .85 was attained for the total scale in the present study.


Formal official permissions were acquired from the administrative heads of the respective banks. Respondents were approached individually and briefed about the research. They were assured about the confidentiality of the data and ascertained that it would be used for academic purposes only. Individual informed consent was also acquired. Afterwards, questionnaires booklet along with demographic sheet was administered. There was no restriction of time for the completion of questionnaires. Later, participants were cordially thanked for the provision of valuable information and data.


Major analyses included Pearson Product Moment Correlation, hierarchical regression and independent sample t-test to evaluate the assumed relations in the context of specific hypotheses.

Descriptive statistics shows that values of kurtosis and skewness fall within the range of +1 to -1, thereby, indicating that data is normally distributed and dispersion is not broadly scattered.

Table 1:
Correlation Among Study Variables (N = 200)

*p < .001

Results given in Table 1 show that polychronicity is significantly negatively related with time management and work-related quality of life. Conversely, time management and work-related quality of life are significantly positively related with each other.

Table 2:
Moderating Role of Time Management in Predicting Work
Related Quality of Life (N = 300)

*p < .01; **p < .001

Results presented in Table 2 indicate moderating role of time management in the relationship between polychronicity and work-related quality of life. It has been found that indirect effect of polychronicity has significant interaction effect (β = -.08, p < .00) in predicting work-related quality of life.

In addition, value of slope (16.42) and significant t value (7.01, p < .00) further reflect the buffering effect of time management proposing that although polychronicity is negatively associated with work-related quality of life but this relationship is shielded and protected by the good time management skills inferring that high polychromic tendencies when coupled with good time management abilities would likely to result in better work related quality of life.

Table 3:
Gender Differences on Study Variables Among Bank
Employees (N = 300)

Note. CI = Confidence Interval; LL = Lower Limit; UL = Upper Limit; PC = Polichronicity; TM
= Time Management; W-QoL = Work-related Quality of Life.
*p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001.

Table 3 indicates significant gender differences on polychronicity, time management, and work-related quality of life. Results indicate that men express less polychronicity, better time management, and elevated work-related quality of life as compared to women.


Results of the present study showed significant negative association between polychronicity and work related quality of life, which are quite in line with the earlier evidences indicating that polychromic inclinations of employees are generally resulted in augmented levels of work related strain, apprehension, and poor internal drive (Carol & Lindquist, 2012). Poposki et al. (2008) further explained that tendency of being polychronic and ultimate urge to handle multiple tasks is often compromised with the poor quality of productivity which, in turn, may generate mental strain, diminished intrinsic motivation, and disappointment with work. On similar note, Lee and Jack (2017) asserted that multitasking in work roles is often associated with reduced internal inspiration, enthusiasm, and passion in both personal and professional domains. It is also noted that work overload functions as a precursor of polychronic work style which is further supplement (Capdeferro et al., 2014).

Findings of the present study indicating that polychronicity is negatively related with time management can be best explained through the model of energy management given by Carol and Lindquist (2014). This model attributes time in terms of amount of energy and availability of resources (cognitive, emotional, & behavioral) essentially required for the completion of any given task. Attempting to manage multiple tasks simultaneously often drains these energy resources with accelerated swiftness and hence resulting in exhaustion of resources and leaving the task unfulfilled. Earlier evidences (Mattarelli & Bertolotti, 2015; Waipeng et al., 2005) based on the employees working in different occupational setups inferred that polychronicity is negatively linked with completion of tasks in a given time frame and often associated with feelings of thwarting, frustration, and extreme disappointment with one’s professional obligations. On similar lines, Jang and George (2012) observed that monochronicity (opposite of polychronicity) is positively related with effective time management, improved job performance, and reduced job-related stress. Recently, Szameitat and Hayati (2019) inferred that polychronicity and time urgency are negatively associated with each other, as polychrons are less inclined to schedule their task, neither give importance to time nor do they plan what they have to do next.

Correlation analysis also revealed positive association between time management and work-related quality of life. Occupational mental health paradigm (Phan et al., 2016) offer reasonable explanation to understand this finding by narrating that personal and professional objectives are procedurally defined in terms of completion of task in a prescribed time frame is itself a rewarding experience for the individual and bears a reciprocal impact on the overall quality of life (inclusive of work related quality of life). Earlier evidences (Eldeleklioglu, 2008; Kaya et al., 2012; Resnick & Rosenheck, 2008) also indicated that better time management skills are associated with augmented perceived job satisfaction, personal well-being, and organizational citizenship behavior (Kaya et al., 2012). Likewise, a handful set of studies (Farrell, 2017; Wang et al., 2011; Waterworth, 2004) revealed that effective time management significantly enhances the quality of work life and happiness and contentment with one’s work.

Moderating role of time management led to the conclusion that time management buffers the relationship between polychronicity and work-related quality of life. This trend found a rational explanation in the work of Carol and Lindquist (2014) describing that time is usually considered as an asset and quality (if used effectively), can function as a resource to overcome various shortfalls in work and non-work domains. Aeon et al. (2017) further explains that negative repercussions of various personal constraints such as active procrastination, multitasking, and work overload can be duly managed by the organizing skills, realistic planning, and time managing abilities of the employees, and it also assist in uplifting the quality of job performance both in terms of productivity and proficiency. In addition, time management acted as a protective factor in minimizing the negative impact of multitasking, lack of role clarity, and non-availability of supervisory support (Adams & Eerde, 2010).

Finally, results showed male employees were less polychronic, better in time management and work-related quality of life. Literature related to gender studies (Arndit et al., 2006; Daskin& Surucu, 2016; Mattarelli, & Bertolotti, 2015) has harmoniously demonstrated that women are more prone towards polychronicity as compared to men; however, the derivations are interpreted in both positive and negative directions. For instance, Lee and Jack (2017) asserted that polychronic tendency of women renders them to be effective personnel in managing household and work-related obligations. Conversely, other evidences (Kirchberg et al., 2015) indicated that female workers are more polychronic as compared to men and hence, less likely to exhibit goal orientation and goal achievement. In case of time management, there is quite a uniformity in the earlier findings related to gender differences; for instance, Usunier and Valletta-Florence (2007) found that on the subscales of time attitude, male workers are significantly higher than the women and male supervisors are able to manage their time better than female supervisors and they can complete time consuming tasks in the short time, however, female supervisors exhibited better quality of completed work (Eldeleklioglu, 2008). In addition to that, work-related quality of life is higher among male employees as compared to females as women reported more experiences of dissonance and discontentment with maintaining balance between home and work life (Resnick & Rosenheck, 2008). However, a contrary inference (Smith, Schnurr, & Rosenheck, 2005) showed that women exhibit more affective maturity, resilience, and quality of life related with work behaviors contingent upon the availability of spousal support and social support from the colleagues. Resnick and Rosenheck (2008) reported more adjustment problems and reduced levels of work life satisfaction among female supervisors than their male counterparts. These findings also found support from handful set of Pakistani evidences, for instance, Nasrullah and Saqib (2015) declared that female university students exhibited better multitasking abilities and academic achievement, whereas male students reflected heightened life satisfaction and self-esteem. Similarly, Butt (2006) inferred that managing various tasks with appropriate allocation of time schedules is better among female workers.


Few potential limitations of the study were identified. Firstly, current sample constituted only bank employees, thereby limiting the generalizability of the present findings. Therefore, inclusion of other organizational setups would enhance our understanding of the said constructs. Secondly, present study focused on the interaction among the variables of the study with few personal demographic factors. However, addition of organization related demographic attributes (such as job designation, job tenure in the present organization, job experience, & type of organization) would offer a comprehensive picture about the phenomena. Thirdly, this study provides an insight about polychronicity in relation to time management and work-related quality of life. It would be more appropriate to explore the constructs in the context of other related variables, for example, productivity, job satisfaction, and turn over intentions to comprehend the associated roles of polychronicity.


The findings of this study would have significant implications for organizational behaviors within Pakistani context. As polychronicity is an important phenomenon which is an inevitable requirement in almost all types of job descriptions and multiple roles assigned by the organizations, the inferences of this study would be helpful in assisting HR practitioners involved in job analysis and job design so as to foster effectiveness and efficiency of the employees as well as organizations. In addition, findings of this study also offer a preliminary insight into transforming downside of the polychronic inclinations into an asset of the employees when combined with additional skills such as time management. Therefore, experts of organizational behavior may design short job-based training modules for the employees to enhance their abilities (such as time, energy, & work-related stress management) to handle the multitasking obligations at work. Finally, derivations of this study offer certain baseline information about the possible role of demographic factors (such as gender & job experience) which may strengthen and reinforce the maximum potential of the workers which would play a crucial role in providing guidance in cultivating well-being and contentment of employees at their workplace.


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How to Cite this paper?

APA-7 Style
Sehrish, J., Zubair, A. (2020). Impact of Polychronicity on Work-Related Quality of Life Among Bank Employees: Moderating Role of Time Management. Pak. J. Psychol. Res, 35(2), 511-528.

ACS Style
Sehrish, J.; Zubair, A. Impact of Polychronicity on Work-Related Quality of Life Among Bank Employees: Moderating Role of Time Management. Pak. J. Psychol. Res 2020, 35, 511-528.

AMA Style
Sehrish J, Zubair A. Impact of Polychronicity on Work-Related Quality of Life Among Bank Employees: Moderating Role of Time Management. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. 2020; 35(2): 511-528.

Chicago/Turabian Style
Sehrish, Javeria, and Aisha Zubair. 2020. "Impact of Polychronicity on Work-Related Quality of Life Among Bank Employees: Moderating Role of Time Management" Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research 35, no. 2: 511-528.