Reliability and Validity Estimation of Urdu Version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised
28 Aug, 2016
24 Jul, 2018
30 Jun, 2019
Present study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of Urdu Translation of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised Version (OCQ-R; Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993). This process completed in three phases. Phase-I comprised of forward-backward translations and then its linguistic equivalence was estimated with English version of OCQ-R on a group of bilingual respondents (N = 45). In Phase-II, reliability estimation of OCQ-RV including alpha coefficient index, split half, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was calculated on a sample of 360 respondents (165 men, 195 women) with age range between 25-40 years. Further, OCQ-R test re-test reliability was checked with one-week interval over 42 respondents. All indexes were calculated were found to be significant. In Phase III, OCQ-R validity estimation was established over sample of 310 participants using Urdu version of Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (Petrides & Furnhm, 2006) along with OCQ-R. Findings showed that Urdu version of OCQ-R demonstrated significant positive correlation with Urdu version of Job Satisfaction Survey, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. It was concluded that Urdu version of OCQ-R showed sound psychometric properties and emerged as a culturally valid, reliable, and acceptable tool.
Commitment is defined as an affective attachment to an organization, commitment as a perceived cost associated with leaving the organization and commitment as an obligation to remain in the organization. Meyer and Allen (1991) conceptualized the concept of organizational commitment more theoretically and comprehensively. For example, organizational commitment is stat of psychological, which emphasizes on the relationship of workers to organization and their decisions to work more with the organization or to discontinue the work with the organization. Conceptually, organizational commitment is divided into three discrete dimensions that is affective, continuance, and normative commitment. The affective commitment is defined as that how much person is affiliated and affectionate with his organization and his recognition and participation in the organization. The continuance commitment means to stay on job and to understand the cause and effect if s/he leaves one’s organization, and to be remain aware of about one’s basic needs in case of leaving the organization. The normative commitment is associated with the feeling of obligation to remain continue the emplacement (Meyer & Allen, 1991).
Moreover, organizational commitment has long been considered as an interesting topic for researchers and it drawn greater attention as well. Since last various decades, various studies have been conducted and the topic of commitment included in as a secondary variable and sometimes it is studied directly or indirectly, this we observed in the literature. However, in recent years when employers paid attention over productivity, the commitment theory and research become an attractive discussion among researchers and they observed organizational commitment is an attitude of being committed with the organization (Solinger, Olffen, & Roe, 2008). This discussion to some extent resolved when Allen and Meyer (1997) summarized this debate in some particular aspects and explained commitment as a multidirectional construct having different forms and identity while some theorists conceptualized the commitment into different ways and they studied it as a part of some variables rather than a unique construct. Secondly, various authors studied the commitment as a separate construct, this we can see in the work of earliest researchers and has been proved from the work of subsequent studies (Rodrigues & Bastos, 2010). Later on, this work became more interested, researchers studied it in terms of individual aspects and personal characteristics, and found such variables are more associated with organizational commitment (Balassiano & Salles, 2012).
In general, commitment is an obligation or promise to an organization by considering own benefits and in return work with loyalty. Despite this discussion, in previous literature commitment was studied as a form of union commitment and it was structured as a multifaceted construct base on fours dimensions i.e. union loyalty, union responsibility, union willingness to work for, and union belief in unionism (Kuruvilla & Iverson, 1993). Later on, this idea became more popular and some authors worked it to conceptualize the framework more systematically but they could not convince themselves over the idea because the work was more relevant to union base commitment rather organizational commitment. Later on, Meyer and Allen (1991) introduced the comprehensive concept of organizational commitment. Some others authors paid attention on the impact of dual or multiple commitments (Morrow, 2011). Similarly, Johns (2005) focused on the concept of organizational commitment and said it happens when an individual accepts, internalizes, and views his or her role that based on organizational values and goals.
Organizational commitment covers multi-aspects of employees’ work such as employees’ personal characteristics, structural characteristics, work experience and characteristics related to job performance as well as nature of work employees’ relationships. Some others aspects, like commitment with goals, careers, relationships, and promotion make employees more committed to the organization (Klein, 2016). Furthermore, those employees whose experiences are pleasurable with organization, their expectations are fulfilling and they feel more satisfied regarding their basic needs, show stronger level of affective commitment (Moynihan & Pandey, 2007). Further, Meyer et al. (2002) described, when workers feel emotionally attached with the organization, they also recognize that their role is important to achieve organizational goals as well as they wish to assist the organization for longer time, such employees meet the optimum level of affective commitment.
Continuance organizational commitment refers to be awareness of the cost linked with the departure from the organizations or a consciousness of the expenditure linked with parting the organization (Aydogdu & Asikgil, 2011). Moreover, employees perceive strong continuance commitment when they think leaving the organization right now can be problematic economically, investment can be lost and availability of comparably limited alternatives. Normative commitment refers to an obligation to carry on employment (Meyer & Allen, 1997). This also shows the outcomes of being happy with socialized experiences in that objectively focus on to be loyal within organization. Taylor (2003) stated organizations that make some particular ventures for employees this might develop sense of respect and value among employees. Generally, when employees think their organization is investing too much and providing all kind of facilities they develop more sense of obligation. This is an ethical obligation to organization (Schneider, 2003). Some organizations plan some programs for employees’ wellbeing but employees cannot return these rewards and benefits to organization in same form but they can return equal to or more than when they serve and work for organization sincerely to raise organizational productivity, standards and wellbeing (Singh & Pandey, 2004).
Moreover, the next dimension is affective commitment. Affective organizational commitment is more related to performance. All these three dimensions associate negatively with employees’ absenteeism and turnover while positively associate with job performance and organizational outcomes (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). There is greater significance of organizational commitment in work industry. Employees’ strong commitment with professions make their career successfully and satisfaction with work. When commitment occurs on both sides, organizations show more concerns with employees and employees become more loyal with the employers, and the outcomes for both parties happen remarkable and fruitful. This enhances organizational productivity and efficiency and this realize to the organizations their staffs are more committed with them and the organizations provide some extra benefits or rewards to employees in return.
To assess organizational commitment of employees can be a helping resource to address the factors that decrease the level of employees’ commitment to organization. For example, if we talk about the teachers’ organizational commitment. Teacher’s commitment with one’s work will make him more productive and effective for the organization while low commitment will reflect in form of lack of interest in work, job burnout, absenteeism and job turnover. Trends of high organizational commitment increase organizational performance and employees’ satisfaction with work (Meyer & Allen, 1991). On opposite direction, teachers’ lower commitment causes some other risk factors that is inconsistency in work performance, lack of motivations in tasks completion, intention to quit job, and dissatisfaction with work. In Pakistan, educationalists and academicians are struggling hard to raise educational standard and to enhance employees’ commitment with the organization. The need is to have tools to assess various factors and job related aspects not only to evaluate the employees periodically but also to have valid research work in the field. Lack of indigenous measures and resources to develop these measures make their task hard and challenging. There is a dire need to fill the gap by either translating or adapting already available tools or to construct some new culture free measures.
The culturally suitable tools to assess organizational commitment are also not available. To address this need a tool can be developed or validated into local language. Method of translation and validation of scale is less economically than test development but similar in benefits. For this purpose, in current study Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised was chosen for cultural validation to assess teachers’ level of organizational commitment. The original version of this scale has been validated for employees of all human service organizations. In current study, OCQ-R is translated and validated into national language of Pakistan (Urdu). Furthermore, this will provide a base or facility to develop new tests as well as researchers’ interest in this area. In addition, OCQ-RV translated in cultural/local language would help to collect in-depth information.
The main objective of this study was to fulfill the gap and to validate OCQ-R into our national language considering its significance and the dire need to assess organizational commitment construct on culturally reliable tool. Initially, permission was taken to use and translate the scale (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993). The first objective was to translate and to check the cross language validation. The next objective was to establish OCQ-R version reliability estimation. Scale reliability estimation was established through Cronbach’s alpha, test retest, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The final objective of this study was to construct the validity estimation of the translated version of OCQ-R.
This study was completed in three consecutive phases. Phase-I, covers scale translation and cross language validation process. In Phase-II, reliability estimation was established by using Cronbach’s alpha, test-re-test reliability, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Phase-III was completed with validation of the scale.
Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised (OCQ-R; Meyer et al., 1993) consisted of 18 items with three subscales that is affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Each subscale comprised of 6 number of items. Each statement carry seven choices ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7). Negatively phrased items have been reversed scoring. It was originally developed by Allen and Meyer in 1990 and based Three-Component Model of organizational commitment. The original version of OCQ was comprised of 24 items and Myer, Allen, and Smith revised it in 1993 into 18 items. Allen and Meyer (1996) reported Cronbach’s alpha of subscales of original OCQ-R between .74 - .83.
Phase I: Translation and Cross Language Validation of Urdu Version of OCQ-R
Initially, process of forward translation of scale was completed. A group of translators was usually preferred for test translation (Hambleton, 2005). Therefore, OCQ-R translation into Urdu was done by four bilingual experts, two were related to academic field and two were language experts with more than ten years of experience with ample competency and command on language. Forward translations of OCQ-R were discussed in panel of five experts. In panel, two were associate professors and three wee assistant professors with more than five years experience in test construction. OCQ-R received drafts of translation were examined critically and the best translation of each item was selected. Recommended suggestions were considered and changes were made accordingly.
In next step, backward translation was processed. Translators should be well experienced and qualified in technical and scientific knowledge of test translation (Johansone & Malik, 2008). Final draft of Urdu version of OCQ was given to another four bilingual experts for backward translation in order to verify and match with original translation. All the experts were well experienced in test translation and they were competent in both languages. Drafts were given to them and they worked independently. Another formed committee of experts was responsible to evaluate the scale backward translation. In this committee there were five experts including associate and assistant professors with sufficient amount of knowledge and experience in the field of test construction. They critically reviewed the back translations of OCQ with special focus that was given to the item content and meaning. Panel recommended some changes in translation in two to three items because they were made with various clauses. With recommended changes, final draft was prepared. Linguistic equivalence dealt with test accuracy and item translation precision (Trimble, 2007) and preferably single-group bilingual design is considered more effective design (Sireci, 2005).
Sample. For cross language validation, 45 participants were selected from different colleges and universities of Karachi. Entire sample comprised of both men (n = 27) and women (n = 18) including married (n = 26) and unmarried (n = 19) participants. Sample age range was between 25 - 45 years (M = 33.51; SD = 6.33). Participants' minimum qualifications were Master with at least one-year job experience.
Procedure. After completion of scale final draft, permission from the institutional authorities was taken and sample was collected. Different participants were selected from different universities. Relevant instructions regarding test administration were given to the participants and then original version was administered over the targeted sample. After one-week interval, the same participants were contacted and then the translated version of the scale was administered. Collected data was recruited and incomplete forms were discarded. Final data was analyzed statistical and findings were interpreted.
Results. For the purpose of cross language validation, descriptive statistics was used to investigate the mean and standard deviation of scales scores. Correlation statistics was used to find the correlation between Urdu and English version. Further, the item-total correlation was also tabulated.
Linguistic Equivalence of English and Urdu Version of Affective,
Continuance and Normative subscales and Total Organizational
Commitment Questionnaire-Revised (OCQ-R)
Linguistic equivalence was established with 1 week interval
*p < .01
Results given in Table 1 represent strong positive correlation between English and Urdu version of OCQ-R and three subscales. This indicates that adapted version is strongly consistent with original scale.
Item Total Correlations of Affective, Continuance and
Normative Subscales of Urdu Version of Organizational
Commitment Questionnaire-Revised (N = 45)
Note.1 Week interval, OCS = Organizational Commitment Scale
*p < .01
Table 2 represents there is strong item total correlation of all three subscales. For example, item total correlation for items of Affective Organizational Commitment subscale ranged from .63 - .86, for Continuance Organizational Commitment this correlation varied between .63 to .86 and item total correlation ranged from .62 to .83 for Normative Organizational Commitment.
Phase II: Reliability Estimation of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire- Revised into Urdu
In Phase-II, scale reliability estimation was established through internal consistency reliability, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Sample. Total sample of 360 teachers was taken from different public sectors institutions of the Karachi. Total sample was comprised of both men = 165 (45.8%) and women = 195 (54.2%). Participants were classified into married 204 (56.7%) and unmarried 156 (43.3%) individuals. Further data was comprised of higher secondary school teachers = 130 (36.1%), colleges teachers = 137 (38.1%), and university teachers = 93(25.8%). Sample age range was between 25 -40 years (M = 33.77; SD = 4.85). Purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data. Furthermore, sample for the test retest reliability of the OCQ-RV was collected. For this purpose total 42 teachers including both male (n = 25) and female (n = 17) participants. Sample age range was between 25 - 40 years (M = 33.90; SD = 6.36). Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data.
Procedure. In order to complete the second phase of the study, again the permission was taken from the heads of different schools, colleges and universities for data collection. At that time, translated version was administered over the target samples. Standard instruction were given to the participants and they were also asked, they can tell or comments at the end of the administration regarding any kind of difficulty, item un-clarity or ambiguity. During this phase, also data for scale test retest reliability was recruited. In test retest procedure, translated version was administered over same 42 participants with one-week interval.
Results. Scale internal consistency reliability was computed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Cronbach’s alpha for three subscales was computed and found to be .81, .81, and .83 for Affective, Continuance, and Normative subscales, respectively and .85 for the total scale. This indicates that scale internal consistency is high, as Cronbach’s Alpha range is between 0 - 1.00 and value close to 1.00 indicates higher internal consistency of the scale (Wells & Wollack, 2003).
Further, split-half reliability means scale items are equally divided into two halves with equal number of items measuring the same construct. Split-half reliability for subscales and total 18 items was calculated and found to be .76, .74, .74, and .68 for Affective, Continuance, and Normative subscales as well as for total scale, respectively. This indicates, the split-half reliability estimate of correlation between these two total scores is significant (Anastasi & Urbina, 2002; Willian, 2006).
Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to estimate the psychometric properties of Urdu version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was conducted to find out the adequacy of sampling and its size. KMO values of three subscales of OCQ-R were calculated and found to be .81, .82 and .83 for Affective, Continuance, and Normative subscales, respectively and total scale KMO value was found to be .85 which indicates high sampling adequacy. Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (X2 = 2332.68, p < .001) reflects data is suitable for factor analysis. Component matrix indicates all items of OCQ-R are highly loaded. The rotation of factor structure using Varimax Rotation Method extracted 3 original factors of Urdu version of OCQ-R.
Estimation of Cronbach’s Alpha, Split-Half and
Test-Retest Reliability of Total Organizational Commitment
Questionnaire-Revised Version and its SubscalesNote
AOC = Affective Organizational Commitment;
COC = Continuance Organizational Commitment;
NOC = Normative Organizational Commitment;
OCQ Total = Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised Version
*p < .01
In next step, scale test re-test reliability was estimated. Correlation coefficient statistics was applied to investigate the findings of test retest reliability of OCQ-R. Findings reported high correlation was found on first and second administration of scale; such as .88 for affective, .79 for continuance and .83 for normative commitment and .91 correlation was calculated for over all items of OCQ-R. These findings are consistent with previous study (Anastasi, 1954) stated the most obvious method for finding the reliability of test score is by repeating the identical test on a second occasion. The reliability coefficient in this case is simply the correlation between the scores obtained by the same person on the two administrations.
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity for Urdu version of
Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised Version (N=360)
Note. AOC = Affective Organizational Commitment;
COC = Continuance Organizational Commitment;
NOC = Normative Organizational Commitment;
OCQ Total = Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised Version
Table 4 shows, KMO values of Affective Organizational Commitment, Continuance Organizational Commitment and Normative Organizational Commitment was calculated between .81, .82 and .83 respectively and KMO for total items was measured .85 at .01 level of significance. High KMO values and significant Bartlett’s Test value represent data is suitable for factor analysis.
Rotated Component Matrix for Overall Items of Urdu Version of
Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised Using
Varimax Rotation Method (N = 360) Note
Values < .30 are suppressed; AOC = Affective Organizational Commitment;
COC= Continuance Organizational Commitment;
NOC = Normative Organizational Commitment
Exploratory factor analysis structured three distinct factors. Factor 1 is loaded with all items of Normative Organizational Commitment (NOC) subscale. Items loading sequence of NOC subscale was seen as NOC-6, NOC-4, NOC-5, NOC-3, NOC-2 and NOC-1 respectively with loading value from .52 to .81. Factor 2 is loaded with items of Countenance Organizational Commitment (COC) with following items loading sequence COC-3, COC-4, COC-2, COC-1, COC-6 and COC-5 respectively. Items loading value of COC subscale was found to be 62 to .81, which indicates high loading value. Factor 3 is consisted with the items of Affective Organizational Commitment (AOQ) subscale and loading sequence was noted as AOC-4, AOC-5, AOC-3, AOC-6, AOC-1 and AOC-2 respectively. Loading value of AOC subscales items falls between .62 to .80. Rotated Component Matrix reported all factors are highly correlated and consistent with each other (Table 5).
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is considered the most reliable statistics to establish the psychometric properties of the scale. Similarly, CFA statistics was applied to test the structured components of Urdu version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised. The most suitable model fit index, the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was calculated .06 this indicates the model is better fit. For example, RMSEA value less than .60 indicates good model fit (Browne & Cudeck, 1993). Good Fit Index was calculated .91, which also indicates the good fit of the model. The Normative Fit Index was estimated .87 that indicates the model is acceptable. Further, the model yielded acceptable fit indexes; such as, Incremental Fit Index = .92, Tucker Lewis Index = .90 and Comparative Fit Index = .92. These findings of the scale yielded through confirmatory factor analysis are consistent with the findings of previous studies (Vossbeck-Elsebusch et al., 2014)
Fig. 1: Measurement model of Urdu version of Organizational Commitment Questionaire-Revised
Phase III: Validity Estimation of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire- Revised into Urdu
Sample. The sample for validity purpose was comprised of 310 respondents. Entire data was recruited from governmental higher secondary schools, degree colleges, and public sector universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Higher secondary school teachers were 28.1%, college teachers were 42.9% and university teachers were 29.0%. Respondents included teachers having permanent nature of job (267) and contractual job (43). Sample age range was between 25 - 40 years (M = 33.38; SD = 4.73). Male participants were 47.7% and females were 52.3% including both married (51.62%) and unmarried (48.38%) respondents. Participants’ job experience was as follows; teachers with less than five years of job experience were 117 (37.7%), teachers with an experience of above 5 years and less than 10 years were 145 (46.8%), and teachers with above 10 years of job experience were 48 (15.5%). Participants living in joint family structure were 174 and with nuclear family structure were 136 participants. Respondents’ qualification was at least master degree. Purposive sampling technique was applied to gather the data.
Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS; Spector, 1985). The JSS consisted of 36 items with nine subscales and it was originally developed to assess employees’ job satisfaction of all human service organizations. Almost half of the items of JSS were negatively phrased. Each question has six choices from disagree very much (1) to agree very much (6). Cronbach’s Alpha of original JSS was .91 and for sub-scales ranging from .60 - .82 with test retest reliability .70. In this study, adapted version of JSS was used (Abbas & Khanam, 2015). Cronbach’s Alpha for Urdu version was reported as .88 and for subscales range from .67 - .78 which was very close to the original. Split-half correlation coefficient was found to be .87 and test-re-test reliability of .79 was achieved. This indicates that the translated and adapted version of JSS had been highly reliable for Pakistani population.
Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965). RSES comprised of 10 statements used as a global measure of self-esteem. Each item was rated on 4-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4) and high scores on the scale indicate higher self-esteem. This measure was chosen because it has been used and continue to be used among various populations and was widely accepted as having good psychometric properties (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991).
Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue; Petrides & Furnhm, 2006). This scale comprised of 30 statements with 15 subscales and each subscale contain two items. Participants have to respond on a 7-point Likert Scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7) where high scores indicate higher level of person’s emotional intelligence. Psychometric properties of Urdu version of TEIQue-SF reported Cronbach’s Alpha as .88, split-half reliability as .86, and test re-test reliability as .81(Shahzad, Riaz, Begum, & Khanam, 2014).
Procedure. After reliability estimation of OCQ-R, scale validation process was completed. For validation process, again sample of public sectors institutions was taken after getting the permission. Urdu version of OCQ-R was administered with Urdu version of Job Satisfaction Survey, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and Self Esteem Scale. Individual administration of each scale was made and its was given five minutes interval from one scale to next scale administration.
Results. Findings reported OCQ-R has significant positive relationship with other scales. For example, OCQ-R has significant positive correlation with Job Satisfaction Survey (r = .52, p < .05), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (r = 50, p < .01) and Emotional Intelligence Scale (r = .54, p < .01). This indicates that the translated version of OCQ-R appeared to be reliable and valid measures by showing significantly positive association with the constructs of job satisfaction and self-esteem.
Convergent validity of Urdu version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-R was estimated by determining correlations with Job Satisfaction Survey, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire short form. Findings showed significant positive association of Urdu version of OCQ-R with all these theoretically relevant scales, thereby, indicating adequate convergent validity of Urdu version of OCQ-R.
Estimation of Convergent Validity of Urdu version of Organizational
Commitment Questionnaire-Revised with Job Satisfaction Survey,
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Trait Emotional Intelligence
Scale-Short Form (N = 310)
*p < .01
Correlation among Demographic Variables and Three
Components of Organizational Commitment in Teachers (N =310)
*p < .05. **p < .01
Table 7 shows that all the demographics of the teachers such as age, education, income, experience, and job status has significant positive association with three components of organizational commitment that is affective, continuance, and normative.DISCUSSION
The findings of the current study provide preliminary evidence for the generalizability of translated and validated Urdu version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised (OCQ-R; Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993) in Pakistan and this was the prime objective of the study. Specific involvements are carried out through standard and extensive procedures of scale validation including three phases. Phase-I completed with estimation of linguistic equivalence; phase II completed with test-retest reliability, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and phase-III reached to end with validity estimation of the scale.
Scale linguistic equivalence completed through forward and backward translations. First, the overall items of affective, continuance and normative commitment were translated according to standard procedures of scale translation and validation. Data related to linguistic equivalence properties supported the adapted version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised as a very homogeneous with original version. This can be seen through high positive correlation between adapted and original version of scales. Further, inter-item correlation and items total correlations also indicates high internal consistency which shows each item is measuring the particular content, which is intended to measure (Johansone & Malik, 2008).
In next step, scale reliability estimation was constructed. Scale Cronbach’s Alpha index for three-component model and overall organizational commitment was found significantly high and this indicates higher test temporal stability (Wells & Wollack, 2003). Moreover, high correlation value of test-retest reliabilities of three components of organizational commitment indicates test is highly reliable and consistent. Exploratory factor analysis structured three distinct factors this indicates each domain is particularly different in measuring the domain of commitment. Confirmatory factor analysis of three-component of organizational commitment reported that it is certainly possible to distinguish among three aspects of commitment both within and across the domain. Further, all component of organizational commitment are found completely independent. Moreover, strong positive correlations were calculated within domains and between domain affective, continuance and normative commitment are consistent with previous (Allen & Meyer, 1990).
Furthermore, data related to confirmatory factor analysis reported three components of organizational commitment were developed theoretically and psychometrically sound (Allen & Meyer, 1990). In the present study, factor analytic results reported Affective, Continuance, and Normative Organizational Commitment subscales have shown that they measure relatively discrete constructs. These findings are consistent with the findings of previous studies (Leite, Rodrigues, & Albuquerque, 2014). Further, analysis reveals that all three subscales are found to be highly correlated within the domains and differentially within the variables purported to be antecedents of commitment, this is theoretically supported by various authors (Meyer, Bobocel, & Allen, 1991).
A significant positive correlation appeared continuously between three components of organizational commitment this can be explained theoretically by considering the fact that all components have many common antecedents. For example, all antecedents were found positively associated with job satisfaction in a sense, employees satisfactory response toward work develops among employees high level of emotional attachment with organization, which comes in favor of affective commitment. Similarly, satisfaction with job increases the job continuity among employees, in fact, they are already availing benefits, satisfying needs as well as no need to think about alternatives and sometimes employees run the job due to limited alternatives. When employees feel emotionally attached with organization and avail benefits they usually consider their own role in the organization in term of obligation and loyalty (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993).
Furthermore, the notion was hypothetically evaluated by considering the role of emotional intelligence and self-esteem in predicting organizational commitment. In the study, data demonstrated that the affective, normative and continuance organizational commitments were found associated significantly positive with self-esteem and emotional intelligence. Further, analysis reveals that affective and normative commitments showed strong positive correlation with emotional intelligence and self-esteem, the fact behind this association represents the homogeneous characteristics among variables that all have link directly, indirectly or dynamically with another. In order to understand the organizational goals and to internalize them, in order to sustain on one's job, to maintain good relationships and to meaningfully relate to organization and its values, employee need to be with good level of emotional intelligence. For example, affective commitment is kind of emotional response or attachment and normative commitment comes when person feel more loyalty with his own organization. Further, self-esteem relates hypothetically with affective commitment, a high sense of belongingness and normative commitment, a high sense of obligation and responsibility with an organization, this shows self-esteem plays a very constructive role in magnitude of promoting affective, continuance and normative organizational commitment.
On the other hand, three-component of organizational commitment obtained significant positive correlation with potential antecedent’s variable like work experience or job tenure, job status, and salary as well as with demographic variables i.e. age and education. For example, affective commitment was found significantly positive with job related variables like job satisfaction and experience among teachers. Continuance commitment among teachers was found significantly positive with investment related antecedent such as job tenure. In the study, findings show that increase length of job was found positively associated with components of organizational commitment. Furthermore, it age and income are strongly positively related with components of commitment among teachers. For example, increase years of age provide potential of experience that relates to affective and normative, while earning resources correlates with basic need or rewards which is consistently related to continuance commitment.
The potential worth of this scale can contribute remarkably in the field of organization psychology. The significance of organizational commitment was observed when various organizational experts turned their attention toward organizational factors of employee’s turnover and absenteeism as well as poor productivity and efficiency. These issues can be identified through three-component model of organizational commitment and organizational commitment is one of the significant factors that may affect organizational outcomes and performance. To highlight these issues among teachers and to other population of employees too, the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire can be a useful tool for use. The demonstration of good reliability and validity of Urdu version of OCQ-R support the valuable contribution of this scale in the field of organizational research.
LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
There were few limitations in the study. For example, sample was collected from urban areas of Karachi and Hyderabad. Secondly, in current study, only permanent teachers were included and they were taken from higher secondary schools, colleges and public sector universities. Target sample generate satisfactory findings and translated measure come out as a valid tool but we suspect that its generalizability on sample of rural areas, below secondary school teachers or on teachers working in private sectors might be different.
Further, this measure can be helpful for researchers, psychologists, organizational psychologists, policy makers’ agencies and higher administrative authorities to investigate the factors that may increase or decrease employees’ level of commitment. This will also provide an in-depth understanding to authorities to reformulate or restructure the policies in order to promote their employees’ organizational commitment. When employees will be committed with an organization, they will put efforts collectively that will increase organizational productivity. Validated Urdu version of OCQ-R will provide a base for new test development for measuring workers’ level of commitment with work in Pakistan. Further, this validated version can also be useful for all human resource organizations if they want to measure their employees’ level of organizational commitment.CONCLUSION
Based on overall findings it is concluded that the translated version of OCQ-R is appeared a reliable and valid tool. For example, cross language validity of the OCQ-R has been constructed satisfactory using bilingual design. Furthermore, factor structure of OCQ-R was explored using exploratory factor analysis, three original factors were structured and later on, they were checked through confirmatory factor analysis. Results from cross language validation, reliability and validity estimation provide sufficient evidences to verify the Urdu version of OCQ-R is appeared as valid construct.
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How to Cite this paper?
Abbas, Q., Khanam, S.J., Ahmed, R. (2019). Reliability and Validity Estimation of Urdu Version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised . Pak. J. Psychol. Res, 34(2), 255-276. https://doi.org/10.33824/PJPR.2019.34.2.14
Abbas, Q.; Khanam, S.J.; Ahmed, R. Reliability and Validity Estimation of Urdu Version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised . Pak. J. Psychol. Res 2019, 34, 255-276. https://doi.org/10.33824/PJPR.2019.34.2.14
Abbas Q, Khanam SJ, Ahmed R. Reliability and Validity Estimation of Urdu Version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised . Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. 2019; 34(2): 255-276. https://doi.org/10.33824/PJPR.2019.34.2.14
Abbas, Qasir, Sarwat Jahan Khanam, and Riaz Ahmed. 2019. "Reliability and Validity Estimation of Urdu Version of Organizational Commitment Questionnaire-Revised " Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research 34, no. 2: 255-276. https://doi.org/10.33824/PJPR.2019.34.2.14
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