Research Article | Open Access

Relationship Between Acculturation Difficulty, Coping Skills, and Psychological Wellbeing Among Young Adults

    Mishal fatima

    Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University

    Laraib Niazi

    Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University

The present study examined the relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing and impact of acculturation difficulty, coping strategies on psychological wellbeing among young adults. Moreover, the study investigated the gender difference. The study was based on correlational research design. The sample consists of 300 students (young adults) with age range 18-35 years including men (184) and women (116) enrolled in university campuses situated at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Acculturative Stress Scale for Pakistani Muslim Students (Bashir & Khalid, 2020), Coping Scale for University Students (Irshad et al., 2015), and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Wellbeing (Ryff et al., 2004) were used for data collection. Findings revealed that that there was a significant correlation between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was used to check the effect, findings revealed that acculturation difficulty negatively predicted psychological wellbeing and solution based coping strategies positively predict psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, this study investigated the significant gender difference in terms of acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing. This study will help policy makers of universities, social psychologists, practitioners to understand the role of acculturation difficulty, coping strategies in predicting psychological wellbeing in young adults so that we may get individuals who well trained in life skills and psychological wellbeing remain intact.

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This research delves into the complexities of acculturation difficulty, coping strategies, and psychological wellbeing among university students in Pakistan. With higher education settings experiencing increasing diversity, it is crucial to comprehend how students confront the challenges of adapting to diverse cultural norms. The investigation into acculturation difficulty intentions to unveil the intricate dynamics inherent in this process, specifically within the distinct context of Pakistani universities. Through an examination of the coping strategies employed by students, the study strives to identify effective mechanisms for addressing acculturation challenges and fostering a more inclusive and supportive university environment. The primary objective was to contribute to the enhancement of psychological wellbeing among university students, offering insights that can guide targeted interventions and support programs. In the globalized landscape of education, the study's findings possess the potential to provide valuable knowledge to educators, policymakers, and mental health professionals who aim to cultivate cultural competence and holistic wellbeing in university settings. This research seeks to broaden the academic understanding of acculturation experiences within a specific cultural context, laying the groundwork for continued exploration and advancement in the realms of cultural adaptation and mental health within the university setting in Pakistan.

It elaborated that how new environment challenges create acculturation difficulty for those who have poor coping strategies as compared to adults who have good coping strategies (Berry & Kim, 1989). Islamabad and Rawalpindi are saturated with educational institutes which provide quality of education and feasible environment so young adults from different provinces come for higher education.  A rapid advancement in various fields has driven people to opt different fields of their interest like financial, social, training and education. Currently the educational field is experiencing rapid growth than others because it’s important for civilization of society. Therefore, this educational purpose has given students an opportunity to shift to different places for higher studies that is usually not accessible at their old hometown. According to previous literature, students who arrive in an ethnically and socially different circumstance for their studies face pleasing as well as difficult circumstances (Yan & Berliner, 2011).
Students from diverse cultural backgrounds often encounter stress or anxiety as they navigate the varied demands of a new culture. Stressors can manifest in various forms, including social, physical, cultural, functional, security, or living-related issues, as outlined by Sadaf and Farooq (2019). Social stressors encompass challenges such as communication issues with new individuals, feelings of isolation, homesickness, and difficulty relating to others from different cultures. Cultural stressors arise from changes in lifestyle, customs, and ethnic uniqueness. Practical stressors are related to study conditions, language, transportation frameworks, and financial challenges, while biological stressors include variations in diet and exposure to different diseases. This process of adjustment and adaptation to a new culture is commonly referred to as 'acculturation.' During this transition, individuals educate themselves about the language, practices, customs, activities, lifestyles, and rules of the new culture, forming new friendships and working relationships (Gillette, 2006).
The impact of culture on individual behavior is profound, and acculturative issues arise when the culture of the host and one's own culture differ. Acculturation, as defined by Berry (1997) and Redfield et al. (1936), refers to the cycle of two cultural groups who meet up and influence each other at both the individual and group levels. The process involves ethnic minorities adjusting to the predominant culture, resulting in changes in beliefs, values, and behavior. Berry's (2005) perspective suggests that individuals can maintain different aspects of their identity reflecting their culture, move toward the culture of the larger society, and experience acculturation by the host. This conceptualization led to four acculturation strategies. Integrative acculturation involves maintaining practices and values from one's culture while also adopting new ones from the host culture (Schwartz & Zamboanga, 2008). Assimilation entails adopting the traditions of the dominant culture while forsaking one's original cultural values and practices. Separation involves individuals preserving their indigenous identity by avoiding interaction with the new culture. Marginalization occurs when individuals are unable to adapt to the new culture while keeping their original culture intact. Those who superficially inhabit two different cultures may develop a de-identified personality, a precursor to psychological distress during the acculturation process. The inability to form a new cultural attachment leads to outcomes such as reduced self-esteem, increased stress, and definitive signs of psychological distress during the transitional state of acculturation.
This research has the potential to deepen our comprehension of how university students in Pakistan navigate a culturally diverse environment. The exploration of acculturation difficulty offers nuanced insights into the intricate challenges and dynamics involved in adapting to diverse cultural norms within the educational context. The study's findings may serve as a foundation for developing targeted interventions and support programs. Understanding the coping strategies employed by students can inform the creation of initiatives that specifically address challenges, ultimately cultivating a more inclusive and supportive university environment. Through an investigation into the relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies, and psychological wellbeing, this research can contribute to the promotion of mental health among university students. The identification of factors influencing psychological wellbeing allows for the development of preventive measures and interventions to enhance overall mental health. In the context of the globalized nature of education, insights into how students navigate cultural diversity can contribute to the development of essential global competencies. The study's findings offer valuable information for educators and policymakers aiming to foster skills crucial in a culturally diverse and interconnected world. This research significantly augments academic literature by providing empirical evidence on acculturation experiences within a specific cultural context. This contribution not only enriches the knowledge base but also encourages further research, fostering academic dialogue and development in the realm of cultural adaptation and mental health. Moreover, the research has the potential to promote cultural sensitivity in educational practices by emphasizing the necessity for tailored approaches that consider the diverse cultural backgrounds of students. This awareness is vital for educators, counselors, and administrators involved in establishing a conducive learning environment.


The rise of globalized education has resulted in an increased cultural diversity within university environments. In Pakistan, where the student population is becoming more culturally varied, it is imperative to grasp the acculturation experiences, coping strategies, and their impact on psychological wellbeing. The higher education landscape in Pakistan has undergone a notable transformation, marked by an influx of students from diverse cultural backgrounds, both regionally and internationally. This shift underscores the necessity to investigate how these students navigate the acculturation process within the university setting. The intricate interplay between traditional values, societal expectations, and the globally influenced university atmosphere forms a nuanced backdrop for acculturation difficulties. A closer examination of these dynamics can offer insights specific to the context and guide the development of culturally sensitive interventions. This study seeks to delve into the complex relationship among acculturation difficulty, coping strategies, and psychological wellbeing among university students in Pakistan. By providing empirical evidence on the acculturation experiences in this context, the research contributes to the existing academic literature. Through an exploration of the interactions between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies, and psychological wellbeing, this study enhances the comprehension of cultural adaptation within the realm of higher education.
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping skills and psychological wellbeing among young adults are from different provinces to continue their higher studies.


  1. There will be a significant relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing.
  2. Acculturation difficulty will negatively affect the psychological wellbeing of young adults.
  3. Solution based coping strategy will predict good psychological wellbeing among young adults.
  4. There will be significant ethnic differences across acculturation difficulty, poor coping strategies and poor psychological wellbeing.
  5. There will be significant gender differences across the acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing.



Correlation research design was used to predict the relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing among young adults. The sample was comprised of 300 young adult’s male and female students with age of 18 to 35 years who came from four provinces Punjab, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Baluchistan for higher education. The sample was approached through purposive sampling technique. The sample had been taken from the government and private Universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The following criteria was used to get data from desired population of current study. We collected data specifically from those young adults who came from Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa for their studies. The young adults living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi from their birth, were not included. The young adults came for different purpose except higher education were not included in current study.


The following measures were used to collect the data for desired study:

Demographic Form

The demographic form was used to collect background information from participants. The results showed that 39% (116 out of 300) of the participants were female, while 61% (184) were male. The educational backgrounds of the participants ranged from undergraduate to postgraduate levels. In terms of university sector representation, 49% (146) of the participants belonged to the private sector, while 51% were affiliated with the government sector. Analysis of the participants' ethnic backgrounds revealed that 45% (136) identified as Punjabi, 5% (16) as Sindhi, 15% (46) as Pashto, 14% (41) as Saraiki, 1% (2) as Balti, 5% (15) as Balochi, 7% (21) as Kashmiri, 6% (19) as Gilgiti, and 2% (4) as Chitrali students.

Acculturative Stress Scale for Pakistani Muslim Students

It’s a 24-item scale that is developed by Bashir and Khalid (2020) to measure acculturation stress. It is comprised of a total of 6 subscales namely Academic Stressors, Local and Environmental Stressors, Living and Financial Stressors, Cultural and Religious Stressors, Language, and Discrimination. It’s a 5-point Likert scale, ranged from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). For the Acculturation Stress Scale, the overall scale demonstrated high reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .87, indicating internal consistency among its items. Among the subscales, Academic Difficulties, Living & Finance Difficulties, and Language Difficulties also exhibited high reliability with alpha coefficients of .84, .87, and .68, respectively. However, the Local & Environment Difficulty subscale demonstrated lower reliability with an alpha coefficient of .54, suggesting some inconsistency among its items. Similarly, the Discrimination Difficulties subscale had a notably lower reliability coefficient of .25, indicating poor internal consistency.

Coping Scale for University Students

Coping Scale for University Students is developed by Irshad et al. (2015). It consists of 26 items and assesses how people cope when encounter with stress. The responses are rated on the 5-point Likert scale where 0 = never and 4 = always. The scale demonstrated moderate reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .70.

Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Wellbeing

Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Wellbeing was developed by Ryff et al. (2004). It consists of 42 items, divided into six subscales, that is, Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life and Self-Acceptance. It is a 6-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (6). For the Psychological Wellbeing Scale, the overall scale demonstrated high reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .87.


The sample was comprised of young adults’ students both male and female coming from four provinces of Pakistan with different ethnicities. The sample was collected from the government, private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi after getting approval letter from Institution Review Board and taking permission from the official authorities (Head of Department) of institutes. Individuals were approached individually, and data was collected from students with their consent. Instructions were given to them so that they can respond correctly to the given questionnaires and participants conveniently fill the questionnaires. In the end, participants were acknowledged for their cooperation.

Ethical Considerations

To conduct the study official approval was received from Institutional Review Board. Moreover, for data collection No Objection Certificate was received from Head of the Department. Data was gathered from students with their full consent after getting permission from their official authorities (Head of Department) of each institute. Participants were debriefed about study and their confidentiality was ensured about shared information. Right to withdraw was given to each participant. Gratitude was expressed toward the participants and the authority for their help.


Data was analyzed with the help of SPSS. Cronbach alpha reliability was conducted to check psychometric properties. Pearson Correlation was used to check the relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping strategies and psychological wellbeing. Regression was used to find out about the predictive role of predictor variable in outcome variables. t-test was performed to find out mean difference across gender. The results of the current study started with data cleaning and screening. After data handling the psychometric properties of the measures of study were established. Data cleaning comprised of three stages, first data was scrutinized to find the missing values, it was treated by the observation of mean method, and different analysis were conducted to treat. To check the normality of the data skewness and kurtoses test was done, both the values were less than 1 which indicated the normal distribution of the data that was gathered with the study scales.

Table 1
Pearson Correlation Among Study Variables (N = 300)
Pearson Correlation Among  Study Variables (N = 300

Table 1 illustrates that there is a positive correlation between acculturation difficulty and coping strategies, as well as a negative correlation between acculturation difficulty and psychological wellbeing. This suggests that acculturation difficulty may have an adverse impact on the wellbeing of young adults.

Table 2
Regression Coefficient of Acculturation Difficulty on Psychological Wellbeing Among University Students (N = 300)
Regression  Coefficient of Acculturation Difficulty on Psychological Wellbeing Among  University Students (N = 300)
Note. CS = Coping Strategies.

Table 2 showed the impact of acculturation difficulty on psychological wellbeing among university students. The finding revealed that acculturation difficulties negatively predict psychological wellbeing but adults using solution based coping strategies has good psychological wellbeing.

Table 3 presents significant mean differences between male and female participants in terms of acculturation difficulty, psychological wellbeing, and coping strategies.

Table 3
Gender Differences on Study Variables (N = 300)
Gender Differences on Study Variables (N = 300)
Note. PWB = Psychological Wellbeing

Regarding acculturation difficulty, the findings indicate that female participants scored higher than males across various dimensions, including academic difficulty, local and environmental difficulty, living and finance difficulty, cultural and religious difficulty, language difficulty, and discrimination. In contrast, males scored higher than females in psychological wellbeing and all its subscales, such as environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. In terms of coping strategies, minor mean differences were observed between genders, with males showing higher scores in avoidance-based coping strategies. However, significant differences were noted in other subscales of coping strategies. Female participants tended to use emotion-based, help-seeking-based, and spirituality-based coping strategies more frequently than males. Conversely, males showed a higher tendency to use solution-focused coping strategies compared to females.


The present study was aimed to explore the phenomenon of acculturation difficulty that people face when moving to new place from their home place for education purpose. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between acculturation difficulty, coping skills and psychological wellbeing among young adults who come from different provinces for higher studies. Moreover, the study aimed to investigate gender differences in manifestation of acculturation difficulty and its impact on coping strategies and psychological wellbeing. Initially normality, reliability of the scales was confirmed. The alpha coefficients for all scales were adequate which showed that theses scales are reliable to use in research. The values of skewness and kurtosis were computed to confirm the normality across the data which was distributed normally.
The findings are in accordance with existing body of theoretical knowledge as acculturation difficulty has significant positive correlation with coping strategies along with significant negative correlation with psychological wellbeing. According to literature, differences among individuals in coping strategies have a significant role in the process of acculturation (Carver et al., 1989). Numerous studies within the acculturation field suggest that individuals grappling with the challenges of adjusting to a new culture frequently employ coping strategies as a mechanism to navigate these difficulties. Carver et al. (1989) highlights the significant role of individual differences in coping strategies during the acculturation process. The positive correlation identified in your study aligns with the understanding that individuals facing heightened acculturation difficulty are more inclined to utilize coping mechanisms to effectively manage the stressors associated with cultural transition.
The observed negative correlation between acculturation difficulty and psychological wellbeing resonates with existing literature emphasizing the mental health implications of adapting to a new cultural environment. It has been found that acculturation experiences can lead to stress and emotional strain, thereby adversely affecting psychological wellbeing. Immigrants commonly confront stressors related to language barriers, cultural disparities, and the necessity to navigate unfamiliar social norms. The negative correlation identified in your study is in harmony with the concept that increased acculturation difficulty may contribute to diminished psychological wellbeing among adult students in Punjab.
The study also revealed that the coping strategies have significant negative correlation with psychological wellbeing. Even though, previous studies showed that some strategies of coping reduced stress and increased positive psychological effects, whereas some others increased pressures and promote negative wellbeing (Smith et al., 2016). Similarly, Yang’s (2010) research on Asian and American graduates’ pupils from different countries like Taiwan, China, and Korea, discovered that maladaptive coping strategies were linked with higher stress levels, on the other hands usage of adaptive coping strategies were correlated with high psychological wellbeing.
Coping strategies can have adverse effects on the psychological wellbeing of students from diverse cultures in Punjab. The efficacy of coping mechanisms in one cultural setting may not align with the prevailing cultural norms and values in Punjab. Employing coping strategies inconsistent with the local culture can result in feelings of isolation, frustration, and a sense of not belonging, thereby negatively impacting psychological wellbeing. Additionally, coping strategies developed in response to stressors in the students' home cultures may not effectively address the distinct challenges posed by the new cultural environment in Punjab. This mismatch can lead to a perceived lack of control over stressors, contributing to heightened stress levels and a decline in psychological wellbeing. In certain instances, coping strategies may be stigmatized or deemed socially unacceptable in the new cultural setting, fostering reluctance to seek support or openly discuss challenges. This lack of social support and the fear of judgment can further contribute to feelings of isolation, intensifying the negative impact on psychological wellbeing. Coping strategies that inadequately address the cultural adjustment process may result in ongoing strain, as the inability to adapt successfully to the new cultural context can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and diminished psychological wellbeing. Effective coping often entails seeking support from others, yet communication barriers, such as language differences, may impede students' ability to express emotions, share challenges, and access the necessary support. This breakdown in communication can contribute to heightened psychological distress.
The findings corroborated the hypothesis that employing solution-based coping strategies predicts favorable psychological wellbeing. Previous studies have indicated that specific coping strategies can alleviate stress and enhance positive psychological outcomes, while others may exacerbate stress and impact overall wellbeing (Smith et al., 2016). For instance, problem-focused coping has been associated with positive adaptation and the effective resolution of challenges. Conversely, the utilization of emotional coping strategies has been observed as less conducive to successfully resolving problems, as evidenced by studies such as those conducted by Brown and Jones (2018).
The results substantiated the premise that significant ethnic differences exist in terms of acculturation difficulty, coping strategies, and psychological wellbeing. Previous research has extensively documented that various ethnic groups undergo acculturation challenges in diverse facets such as language usage, social interaction channels, transportation, social conduct and rituals, financial difficulties, formal educational attainment, and value orientation. These enduring issues in adaptation are strongly linked to an increased likelihood of mental health concerns (Organista et al., 2003). Evidence indicates that students from different ethnic backgrounds encounter varying situations, encompassing social, physical, cultural, and economic stressors. In pursuit of academic goals, they encounter challenges stemming from acculturation and the changed academic system.
Students from culturally diverse environments face new challenges in achieving their goals, requiring them to learn and assimilate new values, traditions, and norms, which may sometimes conflict with their traditional values. This necessitates their adjustment to the norms of the destination ethnic groups. Disparities in mental health and acculturation among ethnic groups can arise due to the significant role of culture in defining, perceiving, and expressing psychological distress (Oppedal et al., 2005; Organista et al., 2003). According to acculturation theory, each immigrant group and host society possess distinct characteristics, leading to potential acculturation differences (Arends-Tóth & van de Vijver, 2006). Variations among ethnic groups in acculturation, psychological wellbeing, and the utilization of different coping strategies depend on their cultural orientation, immigrant characteristics, host society characteristics, and the degree of similarity between the two cultures that is culture of origin and the new culture.
The results revealed significant gender differences in the manifestation of acculturation difficulty, poor coping strategies, and the impact on psychological wellbeing. This study identified that females scored higher on acculturation difficulty, aligning with prior research suggests that female students may require more support to cope with adaptation. Further investigation by Jemal (2012) found that female students are more likely to encounter adjustment issues, particularly in social adjustment, compared to their male counterparts. A substantial mean difference was observed between males and females in psychological wellbeing, with males scoring higher. Existing literature indicates that psychological wellbeing is influenced by differences in socialization experiences, personality characteristics, and the nature of coping, with cultural and religious backgrounds playing a significant role (Sitwat, 2006). Hori's study (2010) demonstrated that women express lower psychological wellbeing compared to men, emphasizing the strong impact of gendered socialization and gender roles on mental health, revealing gender-specific results.
Significant gender differences were also noted in coping strategies. The findings indicated that females tend to use emotion-based, help-seeking-based, and spirituality-based coping strategies, while males exhibited a preference for solution-focused coping strategies. Women showed a propensity for emotion-focused coping strategies such as self-blame, expression of emotions, seeking social support, and wishful thinking or emotionality, as highlighted in the study by Vingerhoets and Van Heck (1990). It is crucial to highlight that the adjustment level of male and female students is pivotal, as individuals with constructive emotional coping mechanisms contribute to a satisfactory life and become productive members of society. Effectively utilizing our human resources necessitates individuals prepared to face life's challenges in a constructive manner, ultimately shouldering the responsibility to produce mature, responsible members well-versed in life skills. The study underscores the importance of understanding and guiding male and female students in areas where assistance is needed to ensure their positive adjustment and, consequently, contribute meaningfully to society (Prasad, 2019).


The primary limitation of this study was the impact of the Covid-19 lockdown, leading to the closure of institutes, and consequently, online data collection through Google Forms. Secondly, the study did not establish an equal proportion of male and female participants from diverse ethnic backgrounds in advance, affecting the generalizability of the data. Participants were exclusively chosen from universities in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, and the sample size was relatively small, thereby limiting the generalizability of the results. Therefore, it is recommended that future studies address these limitations by employing a larger sample size and collecting data from diverse cities to enhance the overall generalizability of the findings.

Future Implications

This study holds significant implications for Pakistani students, universities, and researchers. While existing research has predominantly focused on the acculturation challenges faced by international students, there is a notable dearth of studies on Pakistani students belonging to various ethnic groups and encountering adjustment issues due to acculturation. This study serves as a crucial steppingstone, offering insights that can guide future research in this specific area. Other researchers can build on the findings of this study to deepen their understanding and contribute to the existing knowledge base. Additionally, the study aims to raise awareness in society about the challenges that students undergo during the acculturation process when entering a new learning environment.
For students, this study serves as a valuable resource, providing insights into the acculturation process and the role of coping strategies in dealing with difficulties. Understanding how coping mechanisms aid in better adjustment to different cultures becomes particularly relevant as students engage with diverse cultural perspectives. This knowledge fosters the development of adaptability in multicultural and multi-ethnic environments, as highlighted by Gurin et al. (2002). Furthermore, the study offers benefits for policymakers in universities. It provides an understanding of the challenges students face due to acculturation, enabling the formulation of preventive measures and the implementation of extra-curricular and cultural activities. These initiatives can facilitate increased social interaction with local students, thereby aiding in the adjustment process. Lastly, mental health practitioners can leverage the study's findings to design intervention plans tailored for students experiencing acculturation difficulties and employing inadequate coping strategies. The insights gained from this study contribute to a holistic approach to supporting the mental wellbeing of students undergoing the acculturation process.


In conclusion, this study delves into the challenges of acculturation experienced by Pakistani students in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, aiming to investigate their effects on coping strategies and psychological wellbeing. The results unveil significant associations among acculturation difficulty, coping mechanisms, and psychological wellness, elucidating the intricate interplay between these factors. Particularly noteworthy is the discovery that heightened acculturation difficulty correlates with diminished psychological wellbeing, while the adoption of effective coping strategies, notably those focusing on solutions, positively correlates with psychological wellness. Furthermore, the examination of ethnic and gender disparities enhances our comprehension, suggesting tailored interventions and life skills training to assist individuals in managing acculturation hurdles and safeguarding their mental health. This study contributes to advancing our comprehension of acculturation dynamics and furnishes valuable insights for fortifying psychological resilience among young adults navigating the acculturation process.


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Received 16 September 2022
Revision received 17 August 2023

How to Cite this paper?

APA-7 Style
, M., , L. (2024). Relationship Between Acculturation Difficulty, Coping Skills, and Psychological Wellbeing Among Young Adults . Pak. J. Psychol. Res, 39(1), 93-109.

ACS Style
, M.; , L. Relationship Between Acculturation Difficulty, Coping Skills, and Psychological Wellbeing Among Young Adults . Pak. J. Psychol. Res 2024, 39, 93-109.

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M, L. Relationship Between Acculturation Difficulty, Coping Skills, and Psychological Wellbeing Among Young Adults . Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. 2024; 39(1): 93-109.

Chicago/Turabian Style
Mishal fatima, and Laraib Niazi . 2024. "Relationship Between Acculturation Difficulty, Coping Skills, and Psychological Wellbeing Among Young Adults " Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research 39, no. 1: 93-109.